Currently, there are a large number of various projects of residential buildings built from a variety of materials. In addition, construction work can be carried out on soils with a wide range of physical properties. All these factors determine the existence of a large number of types of foundations for buildings. Therefore, it is necessary to select a foundation suitable for the construction of a building, taking into account the properties of the soil on which the house will be built, as well as the characteristics of the house under construction.
To date, the most common is the strip foundation. It is made in the form of a reinforced concrete strip of a certain configuration. Typically, this design is used in the construction of brick houses, houses with heavy floors or concrete walls. Such a foundation is also used in the construction of buildings with a basement or garage. According to the technology, the occurrence of this type of foundation should be at a freezing depth, with the obligatory presence of a drainage system.
For construction on heaving soils, or in places where groundwater is close to the surface, a screw-type foundation is used. Its use allows you to create a reliable foundation for the future structure in a short time and at minimal cost. Such a foundation on screw piles is made with the help of pillars that look like a pipe, at the end of which there are screw “wings”, and are screwed into the ground manually or mechanized. After that, the piles are welded together using a massive corner or channel.
The columnar foundation is a budget option. This design is similar to a pile foundation, with the difference that in this case, a concrete support reinforced with reinforcement is used as the main elements. Pillars are installed at the corners of the building and at the intersection. This design is used in the construction of light buildings.
The slab foundation is also called monolithic. It’s all about the technology of its manufacture, which involves the manufacture of a shallow pit, made over the entire area of the future structure, and pouring it with concrete, which is strengthened by reinforcement. This type of foundation is quite expensive, therefore it is rarely used, mainly if it is necessary to get a strong floor.